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Phage Immunity: A lysogenic bacterium carrying a prophage cannot be infected by another phage of the same type diabetes diet tips discount 500 mg metformin with amex. Another cause for the decline of interest was the discovery of phage resistance in bacteria diabetic diet 5 day plan safe metformin 850 mg. Recent studies blood glucose 200 level buy metformin 850 mg with mastercard, despite some technical problems indicate feasibility of this type of therapy managing diabetes 3 month buy cheap metformin. Phagemids: Genetic vectors that generally contain the ColE1 origin of replication and one or more selectable markers from a plasmid and a major intergenic copy of a filamentous phage (M13, fd1). Their replication is fast (in the presence of a helper), and they can produce up to 1011 plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL bacterial culture. Phagocytosis: A special cell (phagocyte) engulfs a foreign particle (microorganism, cell debris) and eventually exposes it to lysosomal enzymes for the purpose of destroying it. Phalange(s): the three bones in fingers and toes (at left) with the metacarpal bone (at right) (see. Phalange Phalloidin: An amanotoxin, similar to , but faster in action than amanitin. When labeled with fluorescent coumarin phenyl isothiocyanate it is suitable to identify filamentous actin in the cells. Phallus: the penis, a symbol of generative power, also the fetal anlage of the penis and clitoris. Four types of tests were used: bacterial mutagenesis, in vitro cytogenetics, in vivo cytogenetics and mouse lymphoma assay. One must keep in mind that carcinogenicity may involve routes that are not testable by these methods. Phagocytosis Phagosome: A body (vesicle) surrounded by plasma membrane of a phagocyte. They are fused with endosomes and lysosomal compartments to become 1476 Pharmacogenetics Pharmacogenetics: the study of the reaction of individuals of different genetic constitution to various drugs and medicines. Polymorphic genes frequently determine drug metabolism, drug transporters and drug responses of the body. Pharmacoproteomics: the study of the proteins in sera or urine as a consequence of disease and/or drug therapy. Pharmacodynamics: pharmacokinetics Pharming: the production of pharmacologically useful compounds by transgenic organisms. Phase diagrams are used in several scientific fields for the elucidation of the behavior of the phases of the components under dynamic conditions. In biology, phase diagrams can shed light on the mechanisms of interaction within a system. Figure P58 represents three hypothetical internal (metabolic) components of the cell and two external factors. Component1 External factor 1 Component 3 Component 2 External factor 2 Figure P58. Phase diagram P Phase Variation: A programmed rearrangement in several genetic systems. The flagellin genes of the bacterium Salmonella display it at frequencies of 10-5 to 10-3. The expression of H2 is regulated by the expression of the rh1 repressor (repressing the synthesis of the H1 protein) and the promoter of H2. This promoter is about 100 bp upstream from the gene and it is liable to inversion, and then H2 and rh1 are turned off. The Hin recombinase that is very similar to the invertases or recombinases of phage Mu or Cin from phage P1 catalyze the inversions. Somewhat similar mechanisms control the hostspecificity genes of phage Mu and the mating type of budding yeast. Phase-Contrast Microscope: It alters the phase of light passing through and around the objects and this permits its visualization without fixation and/or Phenotype 1477 staining. Nomarski, fluorescence microscopy, microscopy light, confocal microscopy, electronmicroscopy Phaseolin (C20 H18O4): An antifungal globulin in bean (Phaseolus).
Some observations indicate subtle abnormalities even when the animals so cloned are apparently normal diabetes mellitus retinopathy buy metformin 500 mg cheap. The expression of genes varies in nuclear transplantation (and even after artificial insemination) from that after normal fertilization diabetes medications pharmacology discount 850mg metformin mastercard. In one global study of fertilization in cattle diabetes diet underweight generic metformin 500 mg online, from the 50 genes studied by microarray hybridization diabetes mellitus type 2 incidence cheap metformin 500 mg overnight delivery, the expression of 25 genes was different after artificial insemination from nuclear transplantation; 17 genes were specific to artificial insemination; and eight were specific for nuclear transplantation. The expression of several other genes Nucleic Acid Chain Growth 1371 varied according to the type of the generation of the embryos by these methods. When nuclei from hair follicle stem cells and other skin keratinocytes were used as donors, 19 live-born mice were obtained, nine of which survived to adulthood. The cloning of animals may contribute to the development of improved livestock and may facilitate medical research. By cloning, embryonic stem cells obtained with the aid of nuclear transplantation from an individual may facilitate tissue and organ replacement for the same individual without the danger of immunological rejection. For xenotransplantation of cloned pig tissues or organs into humans, the removal or blocking of the porcine -1,3-galactosyl transferase cell surface antigen may prevent immunological rejection by humans. In the past, the homozygosity of animal herds and flocks was pursued by inbreeding. This could lead to reduced vigor (inbreeding depression) which is avoided by cloning in the short range; in the long range, however, appropriate mating schemes are required for sexual reproduction. Nuclei prepared from dead female mouflons (Ovis orientalis musimon), injected into enucleated sheep (Ovis aries) oocytes, and then the transfer of the blastocyst stage embryos to domesticated sheep foster mothers produced apparently normal mouflon. Nuclease hypersensitive sites seem to be absent in regions where there is no potential transcription. Nucleation: In general usage it means the formation of an initial critical core in a process. During polymerization, first a smaller number of monomers assemble in the proper manner, which can then be followed by a rapid extension of the polymer. The minor bases are modified after biosynthesis of the regular nitrogenous bases (see. Nucleic Acid Chain Growth: Nucleic acid chain growth is secured by adding 5-triphosphates of nucleosides to the replicating system. Nucleic Acid Homology: Nucleic acid homology is based on the complementarity of the bases in the nucleic acids. Nuclein: A crude nucleic acid-containing preparation first obtained by Friedrich Miescher in 1868. Golgi apparatus, signal transduction, G proteins; Kubota T et al 2001 Immunol Lett 75(2):111. Nucleocapsid: the viral genome, including an inner protein layer that is not part of the viral envelope protein (see. The SeqA proteins prevent premature reinitiation by sequestering the replicational origin. Recombination of the replicating chromosomes (occurring in every six generations in E. Nucleolar Chromosome: A nucleolar chromosome has a nucleolar-organizing region where the ribosomal genes are located. In most cases the nucleolar dominance is characteristic of the components of the allopolyploid. In some Arabidopsis thaliana x Cardaminopsis arenosa hybrids both the Cardaminopsis and Arabidopsis nucleolar organizers are expressed (Pontes O N Figure N51. Viral nucleocapsid Nucleo-cytoplasmic Interactions: In nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions the products of chromosomal genes may affect the expression of organellar genes and organellar gene products may influence the expression of nuclear genes. These interactions are facilitated through the complex structure of the nuclear pore. Nucleolar Localization Signals: Nucleolar localization signals target proteins to the nucleolus. The human genome has nucleolar organizers in five chromosomes (13, 14, 15, 21 22). Although in some species there are several nucleolar organizer regions, the number of nucleoli may be smaller because of fusion.
Moderately transcribed genes of Arabidopsis are most likely to be methylated diabetes mellitus animals metformin 500 mg mastercard, whereas genes at either extreme are least likely diabetes type 2 research cheap metformin line. In turn diabetes type 2 side effects purchase 500 mg metformin with amex, transcription is influenced by methylation: short methylated genes are poorly expressed diabetic foods discount 850 mg metformin fast delivery, and loss of methylation in the body of a gene leads to enhanced transcription (Zilberman D et al 2007 Nature Genet 39:61). Demethylation of tumor suppressor genes (by antisense technology) restores their suppressor function whereas methylation of the same genes silences them (Robert M-F et al 2003 Nature Genet 33:61). It seems that the genome of higher eukaryotes, including humans, includes 35% or more active or silent transposable elements. Actually most of the methylated cytosines in mammals are in the parasitic transposable elements. In the small invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis non-methylated transposons and normally methylated genomic sequences were detected (Simmen et al 1999 Science 283:1164). Although this hypothesis is in agreement with many observations, it does not seem to be of general validity, particularly for the methylation of plant transposable elements. The epigenetic state of methylation can be transferred in the ascomycete, Ascobolus by a mechanism resembling or related to recombination. After fertilization, the methyl moieties are generally removed from the CpGs and an unmethylated state is maintained through blastula stage. Some of the genes involved in tumorigenesis display an increased methylation on aging. Housekeeping genes stay unmethylated whereas the methylation of tissue-specific genes varies by tissues. The maternal genomes in haploid and diploid gynogenetic one-cell mammalian embryos are always methylated. The paternal genomes in haploid or diploid androgenetic embryos are de-methylated. Triploid digynic embryos show two methylated maternal and one de-methylated paternal chromosome set. In the mammals, the active X chromosome displays more than two times as much allele-specific methylation as the inactive X. This methylation is concentrated at gene bodies, affecting multiple neighboring CpGs. A methylation-demethylation program results in active X-specific hypomethylation at gene promoters and hypermethylation at gene bodies (Hellman A, Chess A 2007 Science 315:1141). Methyltransferase enzymes comprising enhanced zincfinger arrays coupled to methyltransferase mutants are functionally dominated by their zinc-finger component. Changes in methylation are apparently not required for the regulation of development of zebrafish. In the embryonic tissues of mice CpA and CpT are also methylated to some extent not just CpG. Methylation of the promoter may interfere with the attachment of the transcription factors. The silencing effect of methylation may be associated with the simultaneous deacetylation of the nucleosomes. Methylation of Proteins: Reversible post-translational alteration involved in regulation most frequently at arginine and lysine sites. Other isoschizomer pairs with one methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme can be used similarly. Methylator: It simultaneously methylates several sites in different cancer suppressor genes. As a consequence of this autosomal recessive condition, muscle defects, and in some cases urinary overexcretion of 3-methylcrotonyl glycine and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acids occurs. Some patients respond favorably to biotin because this vitamin is a cofactor of the enzyme. Deamination of 5-methylcytosine at CpG sites into thymidine is one of the most common causes of disease and accounts for 20% of all human point mutations (see. Methylimidazole: pyrrole Methyljasmonate: the fragrance of jasmine and rosemary plants; it is a proteinase inhibitor. A third type of methylmalonic aciduria is due to a defect in the enzyme epimerase (racemase) that converts D-methylmalonylCoA to the L form.
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Symptoms include small painful ulcers around the neck diabete zucca purchase 850 mg metformin amex, gangrenes in the mouth and atrophy of the gum and very low catalase activity in the blood and other tissues diabetes symptoms child metformin 500mg with visa. Acatalasemia may be classified into different groups according to the clinical symptoms blood glucose determination cheap metformin 500 mg, both in humans and in animals diabetes test conversion buy discount metformin 850mg on-line. It can be used to study the tissue distribution, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and radiological hazards of isotopes. It is also a potent tool for paleontological analysis and dating archeological remains. Acceptor Splicing Site: the junction between the right end of one exon and the left end of the next exon. Access Time: the time interval between callings in a piece of information from a storage source to the actual delivery of that information to the caller. Accession number is used by various biological collections for the identification of specimens such as plants in a herbarium, differently acquired strains of organisms. Accessory Cells (companion cells): Epidermal cells next to the guard cells around the plant stomata that appear different from the usual epidermal cells. In animals, they promote adaptive immunity although they are not directly involved in antigen recognition. Accessory host proteins are also involved in the orientation or directionality of transposons. The mutagenicity tests are much faster and less expensive than direct carcinogenicity assays but it is important to know how well these simpler tests reveal the carcinogenic (or non-carcinogenic) properties of the chemicals tested. Accuracy also means when a measurement conforms to a prediction based on physical-chemical properties of the structure of a protein. Caenorhabditis elegans Acenaphthene: A spindle fiber poison and thus polyploidization agent (see. Acenaphthene Acentric Fragment: the broken off piece of a chromosome that lacks centromere and therefore, its distribution to the poles during nuclear divisions is random and often lost. Acentric fragments are frequent consequences of irradiation of cells with X rays and other ionizing radiations (see. Chromosomal inversions may generate bridges (shown between the two poles) and three acentric chromosome fragments of substantial size that drift in the middle of the cell and are not distributed to the poles. Acentric fragment Acetyl-CoA 11 Aceruloplasminemia (3q23-q24): Generally recessive deficiency of ceruloplasmin resulting in dementia, ataxia, diabet0065s, etc. Aceto-Carmine: stains Acetonitrile (methyl cyanide): A highly poisonous liquid with ether-like odor, flash point 12. Aceto-Orcein: stains Acetosyringone: (4-acetyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol) and hydroxyacetosyringone are produced in plant cells (tobacco) and are one group of the compounds that induce the vir gene system of the Agrobacterium Ti plasmid. Acetabularia species are useful objects for developmental genetic studies and show dramatically the role of the cell nucleus. Acetylation of H3 and H4 histones may generate bromodomains for protein-protein interactions. Several non-histone proteins involved in the regulation of transcription are also acetylated. The roles of acetylation may bear similarity to that of kinases although the number of acetyltransferases is much much smaller than that of kinases. It has three major domains: the -mercapto ethylamine unit, the pantothenate unit and adenylic acid. When acetylcholine attaches to the receptor, a conformational change ensues resulting in a brief opening of the channel. This enzyme is the target of oxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione herbicides. The muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are activated by the fungal alkaloid, muscarine, whereas the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are operating in the nerve and muscle cells. Acetylcholine receptors are diffusely distributed on the embryonic myotubes but become highly concentrated in a minute area in the post-synaptic membrane and they tether the synaptic cytoskeletal complex.