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Also see court cases and the box about Foreign Phrases and Abbreviations on page 27 pulse pressure greater than 40 40mg sotalol with amex. Compound words that are hyphenated as adjectives (a well-known man) lose their hyphens when modified by very or similar words (a very low income family arteria intestinalis purchase sotalol 40 mg with mastercard, a rather well known man) blood pressure chart pregnant discount sotalol online amex. In many cases hypertension 3rd stage buy online sotalol, rewriting the phrase is preferable (a family with very low income). Adding "or not" is necessary, however, when whether introduces a noun clause that acts as an adverb: Whether or not you agree with my decision, you must go along with it. Means "happening at the same time" or "as long as": I will stay here while you go to the store. Instead of writing "Spending has increased only slightly, while the deficit continues to soar," write Spending has increased only slightly, but the deficit continues to soar or Although spending has increased only slightly, the deficit continues to soar or, for a sharper contrast, Spending has increased only slightly, whereas the deficit continues to soar. Lowercase when referring to a direction or general location: a west wind, westward, western Thailand, northwestern United States. Uppercase when referring to a specific geographic or political region: the West, Western culture, Westerner, Western Hemisphere, the West Side. Thus, note the distinctions between western Europe (the countries on the western side of Europe) and Western Europe (the Cold War political entity) and between west coast (the shoreline) and West Coast (the region). In complicated sentences, the best way to determine which word is needed is to recast the sentence in your mind substituting he/him for who/whom. If him is called for, whom is correct (easy to remember because they both end in m). For example: the Senator who spoke last week (he spoke last week); the Senator whom we saw last week (we saw him last week). In formal writing, where should apply only to places (the factories where the layoffs will occur), not to circumstances (companies may face situations in which [not "where"] layoffs are unavoidable). Refers both to people and to inanimate objects: the hockey player whose team is in the play-offs, the stadium whose locker room needs some renovations. The standard abbreviation for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. The bill would preserve services through January 1, 2017, but could limit them afterward. Likewise, when using will, put other verbs in the present tense to match: If current policy does not change, spending will total $47 billion in 2015 and may increase thereafter. The yield to maturity is the effective interest rate earned on a fixed-income security if it is held until the date on which it comes due for payment. The relationship formed by plotting the yields of otherwise comparable fixedincome securities (such as Treasury securities) against their terms to maturity. Typically, yields increase as maturities lengthen, and the rate of increase determines the "steepness" or "flatness" of the yield curve. Any direct quotation should have a footnote citing the source of the quotation, as should any mention of a specific study or any controversial assertion made by another author. Statements of fact-such as the years that encompass the baby boom or total outlays for Social Security in 2011-need not be footnoted, unless they are likely to surprise the reader because the truth is contrary to common belief. In general, footnotes are distractions to a busy reader, so they should be kept to a minimum. Footnotes that provide explanatory or supplementary information, in particular, should be brief and few in number. When considering whether to include an explanatory footnote, think about whether the footnote answers a question that most readers are likely to have. If a report has a standalone summary and is divided into chapters, footnotes begin anew in the summary and each chapter. In figures and tables, footnotes are indicated with lowercase letters rather than numbers, and they appear below the figure or table source and any other notes. In rare cases in which having a large number of footnotes is unavoidable, it may be preferable to put them at the end of a document as endnotes. If a report discusses many other studies, a system of author-and-date citations in the text (with an alphabetical list of citations at the end of the report) may be preferable. A footnote number should appear at the end of a sentence, not in the middle, and should follow the closing punctuation (including a closing parenthesis). Do not use more than one footnote number per sentence; instead, combine multiple notes into a single footnote.

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For an algorithm to be useful blood pressure medication for kidney transplant patients purchase 40 mg sotalol with visa, it must be optimized to (1) determine the minimal number of hypotheses (possible functional states) concerning the data set; (2) economize on data storage and subsequent data manipulation/calculation; (3) Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance 249 scale for increasing data sets and for the number of functional states; and (4) be robust prehypertension lower blood pressure cheap sotalol 40 mg overnight delivery. The approach to the problem we propose below is based on cluster analysis (Kaufman 1990) and measures of dissimilarity between time series (see blood pressure medication nerve damage discount sotalol 40mg line, for example blood pressure medication quinapril cheap sotalol 40 mg free shipping, Kantz 1994; Schreiber 1997; Schreiber and Schmitz 1997). Qualitative illustration of dissimilset will be split into J short arity of object "j" to cluster "k" and mean dissimilarity time intervals by shifting a within the cluster. The time scale T can be varied for different purposes, and its choice is a compromise between speed and reliability in data analysis. Each window will be referred to as "an object" or entity, assuming that a window encompasses an unchanged functional state. The algorithm starts with K random clusters and then moves objects between those clusters in order to split objects into clusters such that variance in each cluster would be minimal, while variance between clusters would be maximal. This can be realized by minimization of the so-called cost function (Schreiber and Schmitz 1997). To implement this function, a measure of dissimilarity between objects must be obtained. This can be, for instance, determined by calculating Euclidean distances between objects in a multidimensional space. The optimization strategy to determine the absolute minimum of the cost function will employ simulated annealing (Kirkpatrick, Gelatt, and Vecchi 1983; Press et al. The algorithm described above works well under the assumption that the correct dissimilarity has been determined. For time series objects, in the simplest case, neuronal firing rates can be used as coordinates in a multidimensional space. However, application of this measure is rigid (although it has its own advantages), as it takes into account only local oscillatory properties. Another useful procedure will be the dissimilarity matrix calculation introduced (Schreiber and Schmitz 1997) based on the Grassberger-Procaccia cross-correlation sum (Grassberger and Procaccia 1983). It is based on the hypothesis of a "good" dissimilarity measure and does not include any optimization. This approach can be upgraded to a supervised training data set, where the correct results of classification are known a priori for a part of data and may be 250 C. Improving Human Health and Physical Capabilities used as a feedback for improvement of computational speed and reliability. However, even after tuning, the algorithm may fail, since brain plasticity may occur. Thus, the possibility of sudden mistakes may be corrected by means of the feedback. However, a detailed study of the problem indicates two features: First, all functional states are temporal and have essentially different time scales. For example, being awake can last for hours, while cognition can be as short as tens of milliseconds. Second, we may assume that only a limited number of functional states can coexist. These two features allow building a new adaptive algorithm capable of discriminating, in principle, any possible functional states. The first is length of the time window, T; the next is the number of clusters of objects, K, being separated; and the third is a dissimilarity measurement. Thus, fast processes (functional states) would be eliminated due to averaging over a protracted time. Moreover, functional states with intermediate time scales and with a strong influence onto others would be left out due to very rough classification, since we have split patterns into a few clusters only. Then, when a first approximation of cluster boundaries is determined and it can reliably detect functional states of the top level, a step down can be taken by decreasing window size T and by including finer functional states (increasing K). Moreover, it is possible to work "within" a functional state of the upper level and reject all nonfitting. Such modification of the algorithm allows scalability and a method of exploration of all possible functional states. One problem here is that the deeper we go into the functional state hierarchy, the heavier the computation needed.

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Operationalizing "One Health": A Policy Perspective-Taking Stock and Shaping an Implementation Roadmap blood pressure 50 over 0 sotalol 40 mg fast delivery. Piloting the One Health Systems Mapping and Analysis Resource Toolkit in Indonesia blood pressure emergency order sotalol 40 mg overnight delivery. Outcome and Impact Assessment of the Global Response to the Avian Influenza Crisis blood pressure medication uk order sotalol 40 mg without prescription, 2005­2010 heart attack get me going order sotalol 40mg free shipping. Sharing responsibilities and coordinating global activities to address health risks at the animal-human-ecosystems interfaces-A Tripartite Concept Note, April 2010. Contributing to One World, One Health-A strategic framework for reducing risks of infectious diseases at the animalhuman-ecosystems interface. Strategic framework requested by the Ministerial Conference in New Delhi in December 2007, welcomed by the Ministerial Conference in Sharm El-Sheikh in October 2008, and urged for implementation by the Ministerial Conference in Hanoi in April 2010. The potential role of concentrated animal feeding operations in infectious disease epidemics and antibiotic resistance. A One Health Framework for the Evaluation of Rabies Control Programmes: A Case Study from Colombo City, Sri Lanka. Antibiotic resistance gene spread due to manure application on agricultural fields. The global burden of disease study 2010: interpretation and implications for the neglected tropical diseases. Sustaining global surveillance and response systems for emerging zoonotic diseases. Global Program for Avian Influenza Control and Human Pandemic Preparedness and Response: Project Accomplishments. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, a short article available at thebulletin. Targeting transmission pathways for emerging zoonotic disease surveillance and control. Bouley, Mieghan Bruce, Jose Cortiсas Abrahantes, Anas El Turabi, Yasha Feferholz, Louise Flynn, Giullaume Fourniй, Amanda Andre, Delia Grace, Olga Jonas, Tabitha Kimani, Franзois Le Gall, Juan Jose Miranda, Marisa Peyre, Julio Pinto, Noam Ross, Simon Ruegg, Robert H. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 111(2):235­237. Livestock vaccinations translate into increased human capital and school attendance by girls. The impact of ticks and tick-borne diseases on the livelihood of 136 Ref erences small-scale and marginal livestock owners in India and eastern and southern Africa. The Neglected Dimension of Global Security: A Framework to Counter Infectious Disease Crises. Ecological functions and ecosystem services provided by Scarabaeinae dung beetles. Long-term socioeconomic impact of the Nipah Virus encephalitis outbreak in Bukit Pelanduk, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia: A mixed methods approach. Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans. A Systematic Scoping Study of the SocioEconomic Impact of Rift Valley Fever: Research Gaps and Needs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111(52):18519­18523. Frequent Arousal from Hibernation Linked to Severity of Infection and Mortality in Bats with WhiteNose Syndrome. Prioritizing zoonoses: a proposed one health tool for collaborative decision making. Draft political declaration of the high-level meeting of the General Assembly on antimicrobial resistance. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles, Scientific Reports (2015). Safeguarding human health in the Anthropocene epoch: report of the Rockefeller Foundation-Lancet Commission on planetary health. Taking Sex and Gender into Account in Emerging Infectious Disease Programs: an Analytical Framework. Preventing disease through healthy environments: a global assessment of the burden of disease from environmental risks. Connecting Global Priorities: Biodiversity and Human Health, a State of Knowledge Review.

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A valuable aspect of the process is documenting the problem formulation development arrhythmia palpitations cheap sotalol. The value is that it provides a written record of the justification for the decisions regarding the scope pulse pressure graph cheap sotalol 40mg amex, goals blood pressure medication lipitor buy discount sotalol line, and necessary documentation of the risk assessment blood pressure chart images purchase sotalol 40 mg without prescription. The final risk assessment report should include all of the problem formulation information for the risk assessment iterations that are being published. The concepts and in many cases the language used during development of the problem formulation documentation can be used in the final risk assessment document. Depending on the form of the problem formulation documentation, the statement of concern and the statement of purpose can be included as part of an executive summary of the risk assessment document. The scope, questions to be addressed, conceptual model, and data not included can be used in the problem formulation chapter of the risk assessment document. Other planning and scoping documentation can be summarized in the problem formulation chapter, a planning and scoping chapter or, if desired, attached as an appendix. The analytical approaches including tools, data inventory, summary of assumptions, and discussion of recommended factors are reiterated as appropriate in the exposure and human health chapters of the risk assessment document. The summary of assumptions is reiterated in the risk characterization chapter (5), which also includes the discussions of variability, uncertainty, and identified gaps. For comparison, the risk profile approach developed by Codex for microbiological food risk is presented in Text Box 1. Statement of Concern A concise statement of concern should be developed during problem formulation to convey, in simple terms, what hazard is being addressed and how it is thought to relate to human health for an exposure scenario. Statement of Purpose and Objectives the purpose and/or objectives of the risk assessment should be stated in a concise paragraph. Note, the designated use and the national scope might be different in other cases. Hazard-food commodity combination(s) of concern: Hazard(s) of concern Description of the food or food product and/or condition of its use with which problems (foodborne illness, trade restrictions) due to this hazard have been associated Occurrence of the hazard in the food chain 2. Description of the public health problem: Description of the hazard including key attributes that are the focus of its public health impact. Food production, processing, distribution, and consumption: Characteristics of the commodity (commodities) that are involved and that may impact on risk management Description of the farm to table continuum including factors which may impact the microbiological safety of the commodity. History and Context within the Agency Previous risk assessments addressing the same or similar hazards should be summarized to provide context for the current risk assessment. Scope the scope section of problem formulation outlines the scenarios that the risk assessment will address. It is often helpful to list several options for answering the questions listed below. Then, managers and assessors can engage in a dialog to determine which options will be used. Describe which populations are explicitly included in the risk assessment model, which will be accounted for implicitly, and which populations may be excluded by the risk assessment model. What health outcomes or endpoints are addressed by the risk assessment, including how the health outcome is measured? Clearly defining the health endpoint is important for transparency and also focuses the scope of the risk assessment. What unit and routes of exposure are relevant and why (magnitude, duration, frequency units)? For risk assessments designed to derive criteria to set "safe" levels of microorganisms, what level of protection (target risk or risk range) will be provided by the criteria, and what is the technical or policy justification for those criteria? List specific scenarios the risk managers would like to model (varying the inputs), including desired spatial and temporal features. The current policy for drinking water standards is to characterize the degree of protection without specific risk-based targets. In this approach the protective ranges have been influenced mainly from feasibility of measurement and application of control technology, taking costs into consideration. For example, it may be possible to evaluate the relative degree of protection from fecal contamination in drinking water sources without quantitatively characterizing the risk associated with a specific health endpoint. Although acceptable risk and target risk are both numeric values that are determined through science policy decisions they are not necessarily always the same.

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Knowing what is meant by a 40 percent Grounding Mathematics in Quantitative Literacy 177 chance of rain pulse blood pressure relationship order sotalol toronto, a batting average of arrhythmia interpretation practice discount sotalol online amex. For example arrhythmia can occur when 40mg sotalol with amex, mathematics in science classes is typically independent of mathematics in mathematics classes arterial occlusion order genuine sotalol line. Typical science classes make little effort to reinforce mathematical concepts or to demonstrate their application in scientific inquiry. Current mathematics classes abound in inappropriate, inconsistent, or unrealistic situations and data. On an optimistic note, some of the new "reform" or "standards-based" K­ 8 curriculum materials in mathematics do a much better job of offering realistic and appropriate examples and contexts. The knowledge and skills that make up quantitative literacy can be defined through careful sets of learning goals, specific concepts and skills that together paint a coherent and complete picture. There are two types of goals: targets for adult knowledge and skills such as those in Science for All Americans George D. Nelson is Director of the Science, Mathematics and Technology Education Center at Western Washington University. Immediately prior to assuming this position, Nelson directed Project 2061, a national initiative of the American Association for the Advancement of Science to reform K-12 science, mathematics and technology education. Benchmarks are especially important as a strategy to reach our targets because they define the content around which curricula can be designed and built. Although science can be data-rich, natural science often is taught more like what Arnold Packer and others call "x, y math. Promote the pedagogical advances that the K­12 mathematics community has made through its curriculum development work. Read and criticize the mathematics in Science for All Americans (Project 2061 1989), Benchmarks for Science Literacy (Project 2061 1993), and the Atlas of Science Literacy (Project 2061 2001). At some point in her presentation, I asked her "What the hell is quantitative literacy? In frustration, she sent me a copy of Mathematics and Democracy: the Case for Quantitative Literacy (Steen 2001). After reading this publication, reviewing some recent events of which I was part, and reflecting on my personal progression to becoming "quantitatively literate," I can now say, "Professor Blair, I get it! My remarks address the importance I attach to learning in context and the status of quantitative literacy in a high-tech industry such as the design and manufacture of aircraft engines. Mathematics and Democracy defines being quantitatively literate as: Arithmetic: Having facility with simple mental arithmetic; estimating arithmetic calculations; reasoning with proportions; counting by indirection (combinatorics). Computers: Using spreadsheets, recording data, performing calculations, creating graphic displays, extrapolating, fitting lines or curves to data. Statistics: Understanding the importance of variability; recognizing the differences between correlation and causation, between randomized experiments and observational studies, between finding no effect and finding no statistically significant effect (especially with small samples), and between statistical significance and practical importance (especially with large samples). Steenken recently retired as a Consulting Engineer in Engine Operability from General Electric Aircraft Engines in Cincinnati, Ohio. An elected member of school boards in Ohio for over 22 years, Steenken is president of the National Alliance of State Science and Mathematics Coalitions, past chair of the Ohio Mathematics and Science Coalition, and a member of the Mathematical Sciences Education Board. Those of us at this Forum and those whom we represent are a very, very small percentage of the U. Most of the population, however, is like the typical adult described by Project 2061. Paraphrasing material from this project, the typical adult is a person over 18 years of age with no mathematics or science training beyond high school. The typical adult would recognize computation beginning with whole numbers, then fractions, and integers, and later involving algebraic and possibly trigonometric formulas as mathematics (Blackwell and Henkin, 1989, 1). Thus, it is no wonder that the general population equates being quantitatively literate with being mathematically knowledgeable. On the other hand, the foundations of quantitative literacy lie in mathematical literacy. It did not happen in one course or one place but slowly became a way of life that was continually honed over a long career that continues to this day. I am always looking for a better way to present complicated numerical results that can be easily understood by a broad array of audiences. Learning in Context I probably gained most of my mathematical literacy from the engineering courses that I took and the subsequent need for solutions to problems encountered in my daily work.

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